New Prostate Cancer Model to Predict Recurrence and Radiation Therapy Response

New Prostate Cancer Model to Predict Recurrence and Radiation Therapy Response
A new study recently published in the journal PLOS ONE, led by researchers at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, showed that cancer recurrence after prostate removal and a patient’s radiation therapy response can be predicted by a specific group of molecules called microRNAs expressed in cancer cells. The study is entitled “A Novel MiRNA-Based Predictive Model for Biochemical Failure Following Post-Prostatectomy Salvage Radiation Therapy.” Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, with almost one million new cases diagnosed every year worldwide. In the United States, it is estimated that 220,800 new cases will be diagnosed in 2015. It is a curable cancer that can range from slow-growing tumors (more common) to rapidly progressing aggressive tumors. An early diagnosis of the disease is crucial and it can be made through a blood analysis for prostate-specific antigens (PSA; a protein produced by prostate cells). One of the treatment options commonly employed in cases of men with early-stage prostate cancer is radical prostatectomy, where the prostate gland and some of the surrounding tissue is removed by a surgical procedure. Still, 30 to 40% of patients undergoing prostatectomy later experience an increase in PSA levels, representing a biochemical evidence of treatment failure (biochemical failure). Patients who exhibit biochemical failure are at risk for cancer recurrence and are often submitted to radiation therapy treatment. Several studies have shown that microRNAs may play a role in the context of prostate cancer development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are known to play critical roles in the regulation of gene
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