New AI Algorithm Can Accurately Identify, Grade Prostate Cancer

New AI Algorithm Can Accurately Identify, Grade Prostate Cancer
A new artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm has been developed that can accurately detect and grade prostate cancer, using slide images from patient core needle prostate biopsies, a study reports. The study, “An artificial intelligence algorithm for prostate cancer diagnosis in whole slide images of core needle biopsies: a blinded clinical validation and deployment study,” was published in The Lancet Digital Health. Analysis of tissue collected during a prostate biopsy is currently the mainstay diagnostic test for prostate cancer. However, an increase in prostate cancer incidence and demand for these diagnostic tests, coupled with a shortage of expert pathologists, has led to the need for an AI-based system that could accurately detect prostate cancer. Researchers from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), in collaboration with colleagues, have now developed and validated a new AI-based algorithm designed to recognize prostate cancer using tissue slides with patient core needle biopsies (CNBs). They started by “training” the AI algorithm to recognize signs of prostate cancer, using a total of 1,357,480 images, taken from 549 tissue slides. Each slide had been stained with a combination of hematoxylin, which labels cells’ nuclei in blue, and eosin, which labels the cells’ cytoplasm and extracellular matrix in pink. Nuclei are the small cell compartments where a cell’s genetic information is stored, while the cytoplasm includes all material found inside cells; the extracellular matrix is the external network that surrounds and supports cells. After training the algorithm to distinguish abnormal from healthy tissue, the investigators tested its accuracy at detecting signs of prostate cancer in an internal data set composed of
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